When bending pipes there are a number of different bends that can be made depending on what kind of obstacle you are avoiding or which direction you intend to take the pipe.Below are some example of the most common bends used in plumbing and electrical applications.
90 degree stub up bend
A 90 degree stub up bend is made by bending a piece of piping into a 90 degree or ‘L’ shape. It is the bend most commonly used by electricians and plumbers.This bend is frequently used to run conduit into electrical boxes, run pipes up and down walls and to run pipe into walls through floors and ceilings.
Back to back bend
A back to back bend is built on from an initial stub up bend, and looks like an elongated ‘U’ shape.This type of bend is used when you need to fit pipe between two parallel surfaces, such as between two walls, where you need to keep the ends of the pipe tight to the surface.
An offset bend is made of two equal degree bends in opposite directions. It is used to move the pipe around an object or stagger it up steps or a slope.The angle of an offset bend can vary depending on where it is and how steep the changes of path needs to be. The most common use for an offset bend is to create a staggered joint and to create change in elevation.
Three point saddle bend
The three point saddle bend is, like the offset bend, used to move the pipe around obstacles.However, this bend returns to its original path once it has passed the obstacle. It is called the three point saddle bend because it is made up of three separate bends.
It is used to pass over small obstacles of around 152mm (6″) or less.
There is a variant of the three point saddle bend called the four point saddle bend, which is used to jump over obstacles too large for the three point saddle bend. Instead of a pointed arch, it uses an extra bend to create a bridge over the obstacle.