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What are needle and escapement files?

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A selection of needle files with different cross sectional shapes Needle and escapement files tend to be shorter, thinner versions of the larger machinist’s files.
A watch maker filing parts to precision with a three square needle file They are used where a great degree of precision is necessary, particularly in fine metalworking trades such as locksmithing, jewellery making, watch making and electronics.
Image of a jeweller filing patterns onto a mokumé gané bracelet with a round needle file They are perfectly suited to making decorative patterns on jewellery and the backs of knife blades and handles.

For more information, see: How to create decorative patterns with files

Hobbyist filing a plastic goblin miniature with a round needle file Needle files can also be used in modelling, to clean up small parts of plastic, resin or pewter models so that they will glue together more easily.
Image of a DIYer identifying a file by studying a variety of different attributes

Classification

All needle and escapement files are classified in the same way as normal files, and their specific uses vary according to their cross section, as described in each file guide.

What are the characteristics of needle and escapement files?

Image showing a selection of needle files with different cross sections

Cross section, profile and cut

Needle and escapement files are made with a variety of cross-sectional shapes, profiles and cuts. All of the Swiss pattern files listed in the guides are produced as needle and escapement files in addition to their regular sizes.

Image of a needle file against a steel rule showing that the tool is usually around 100mm long

Size

Needle and escapement files tend to be between 100mm (4″) and 137mm (51/2“) long, although they can be longer.

Image of a DIYer using a three square needle file for precision filing work Their defining feature is that they are thinner than standard machinist’s files, which means they can be relied on for more precise work.
Image showing the internal mechanism of a cash register, which is the perfect example of a complicated piece of equipment that may require filing in extremely restricted areas. Needle files are essential for this kind of work. As they are thinner, they can be used in tighter spaces than normal files.
Image of a needle file with a characteristic integrated handle

Handle

One of the features of needle files is their rounded handle, which is most often integrated with the blade.

A DIYer's hand, which is hurting after using a file with no handle for a long time These handles are quite thin, however, and can make your hand ache if used for a long period of time.
The solution to the thin grips on needle files is the use of a needle file handle To combat this, needle file holders have been developed to hold the file securely and give the DIYer a more comfortable grip. They are adjustable, which allows them to attach to any size of needle or escapement file handle.
A selection of escapement files Needle files with long, thin, square handles are referred to as escapement files. They were designed to allow precision filing in hard-to-reach areas
Close up of the gears and mechanisms inside a clock that need to be dressed with an escapement file They were originally developed to file inside clock mechanisms.
A clock escapement, which gave its name to the files that were developed to deburr this part of the clock They take their name from the part of a clock that transfers energy from the pendulum to the time-keeping mechanism, which is known as the escapement.
Flag of Switzerland - home of the Swiss pattern file invented by F. L. Grobet in the 19th Century

Swiss or American?

All needle and escapement files are Swiss pattern files.

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