There are many tools used to shape in woodworking and although these may not carry out the exact same task as spokeshaves, they are similar and can be considered as alternatives.
A spokeshave is a specialised plane and so they perform in a similar way. Planes are larger than spokeshaves and not as precise for the more delicate tasks.
A drawknife is quite similar to a spokeshave, but has fewer parts. It is simply a blade with the handles attached at either end. Drawknives achieve a similar result to the spokeshave but are less widely available.
A rasp is a bit like a cheese grater and is used to shave down wood quickly. It is useful for curved pieces of wood, like the spokeshave, but has a coarse finish which requires more work afterwards with other tools like files and sand paper.