There is a wide range of pads and discs readily available for random-orbit sanders.
A sanding pad (or “interface pad”) is a durable sponge disc that affixes to the random orbital sander. The sanding disc is then affixed to the pad. The pad acts as a dampener and reduces the chance of disc distortion.
A sanding disc is essentially a circular piece of sandpaper. There are many different grades and levels of abrasion available and the discs are typically affixed to a random-orbit sander via a “hook and loop” or “peel and stick” system.
Abrasive discs are very similar to sanding discs though they are typically coated with a much more abrasive substance such as silicon carbide.
Polishing bonnets (typically lamb’s wool) are frequently used on random-orbit sanders. The soft fibres of the wool are perfect for soft polishing jobs.
A buffing pad is typically a large, thick, manufactured foam material that can be used to wax or polish wooden, metal, and plastic surfaces.